Asking Questions Diaspora Consciousness Summarize text 5

Asking Questions Diaspora Consciousness Summarize text 5

Asking Questions Diaspora Consciousness Summarize text 5

 Summarize Written Text


 1. Asking Questions

All non-human animals are constrained by the tools that nature has bequeathed them through natural selection. They are not capable of striving towards truth; they simply absorb information, and behave in ways useful for their survival. The kinds of knowledge they require of the world have been largely irrelevant to its immediate circumstances or its evolutionary -deigned needs. When a beaver builds a dam, it doesn’t ask itself why it does so, or whether there is a better way of doing it. When a swallow flies south, it doesn’t wonder why it is hotter in Africa or what would happen if it flew still further south.

Humans do ask themselves these and many other kinds of questions, questions that have no relevance, indeed make little sense, in the context of evolved needs and goals. What marks out humans is our capacity to go beyond our naturally-defined goals such as the need to find food’ shelter or a mate and to establish human-created goals.

Some contemporary thinkers tend to believe that there are indeed certain questions that humans are incapable of answering because of our evolved nature. Steven Pinker, for instance, argues that “Our minds evolved by natural selection to solve problems that were life-and-death matters to our ancestors, not to commune with correctness or to answer any question we are capable of asking. We cannot hold ten thousand words in our short-term memory. We cannot see ultra-violet light. We cannot mentally rotate an object in the fourth dimension. And perhaps we cannot solve conundrums like free will and sentence.



Unlike animals that could only absorb information pre-selected by the nature, humans can ask themselves questions which are irrelevant to naturally-defined needs and goals and some people believe that humans are also incapable of answering some questions due to the evolved nature.


2. Diaspora Consciousness

Diasporas- communities which live outside, but maintain links with, their homelands- are getting larger, thicker and stronger. They are the human face of globalization. Diaspora consciousness is on the rise: diasporas are becoming more interested in their origins, and organizing themselves more effectively; homelands are revising their opinions of their diasporas as the stigma attached to emigration declines, and stepping up their engagement efforts ; meanwhile, host countries are witnessing more assertive diaspora groups within their own national communities, worrying about fifth columns and foreign lobbies, and suffering outbreaks of ‘diaspora-phobia’.

This trend is the result of five factors, all of them connected with globalization: the growth in international migration; the revolution in transport and communications technology, which is quickening the pace of diasporas, interactions with their homelands; a reaction against global homogenized culture, which is leading people to rethink their identities; the end of the Cold War, which increased the salience of ethnicity and nationalism and created new space in which diasporas can operate; and policy changes by national governments on issues such as dual citizenship and multiculturalism, which are enabling people to lead transnational lives. Diasporas such as those attaching to China, India, Russia and Mexico are already big, but they will continue to grow; the migration flows which feed them are likely to widen and quicken in the future.


The trend that diasporas are conscious about their origins and that host countries are suffering outbreaks of diaspora-phobia results from five factors related to globalization: the growth in international migration, transportation and communication technology revolution, a reaction against global homogenized culture, the end of the Cold War and policy changes by governments.

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