# Multiple choice single answer question reading 14
Read the text and answer the multiple choice question by selecting the correct response. Only one response is correct.
1.) Curly hair includes a wide range of hair fiber shapes, ranging from twists and crimps to waves and kinks. The shape of each hair follicle is thought to be determined during embryonic development, but scientists do not know exactly how this happens. Curvy hair follicles are “S-shaped,” meaning that they have two bends. This shape is set for life, although the hair follicle naturally undergoes structural changes every few years. Each hair grows for around 3 to 5 years before undergoing a resting phase of several months, and then, eventually, it falls out. During this resting phase, the hair follicle changes in structure, essentially shriveling up in the skin. To start a new cycle of hair growth, the follicle grows back to its original shape. Curvy follicles always grow back curvy. But what regulates this remarkable re-establishment of curvature in the follicle remains a mystery.
Question: Which of the following is true about hair growth according to the text?
a. Scientists have determined the cause of curly hair.
b. Individual hair follicles can produce both curly and straight hairs in a single lifetime.
c. Whether a hair follicle produces straight or curly hair is likely determined before birth.
d. Individual hair follicles produce single hair per lifetime.
2.) The sperm count decline is real and it’s not showing any signs of slowing down, according to new research published in Human Reproduction Update. By conducting a meta-analysis of 185 studies published between 1973 and 2011, researchers from the Hebrew University-Hadassah Bruan School of Public Healthy and Community Medicine and the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai documented a 52.4 percent decline in sperm concentration, and a 59.3 percent decline in total sperm count among men living in North America, Europe, Australia, and New Zealand. The same declines were not observed among men living in South America, Asia, and Africa, where fewer studies have been performed.
Question: Which of the following is the best summary of the new research as described in the text?
a. Through a meta-analysis of studies published between 1973 and 2011, researchers have concluded that sperm count has significantly declined among men living in Western countries.
b. By conducting a sperm count study that lasted from 1973 to 2011, researchers have concluded that sperm count has significantly declined among men living in Western Countries.
c. More than 50% of men in Western countries now have lower sperm count than in 1973, when the meta-analysis of sperm count studies began.
d. MEN in Western countries have seen a significant drop in sperm count while men in South America, Asia, and Africa have not seen any decline.
3.) With electrodes attached to their brains, immobilized dragonflies were shown a series of black squares intended to mimic prey. As they were shown simulated prey, researchers watched as the activity of small Target Motion Detector neurons (STMD neurons) fired up in the dragonfly brains. Instead of just following the target through time and space along a straight line (as most insects are thought to do), the STMD neurons actually worked to predict the future location of the black dots, according to the new study. These specialized neurons increased their activity in a tiny “focus” area just in front of the moving object being tracked; individual neurons were more sensitive to movements just ahead of the black dot’s current position. Also, when the black dot suddenly disappeared (as a target might do when, say, it flies behind a tree), the dragonfly brain still worked to predict where the dot was most likely to reappear.
a. By attaching electrodes to dragonfly brains, researchers have determined that STMD neurons are capable of tracking prey through time and space along a straight line.
b. By monitoring dragonfly STMD neurons, researchers have determined that STMD neurons give dragonflies the capacity to be more sensitive to movements.
c. By attaching electrodes to dragonfly brains, researchers have determined that dragonflies are better than most insects at focusing on prey.
d. By monitoring dragonfly STMD neurons, researchers have determined that dragonflies are capable of predicting the future location of prey.
4.) The formation of an ice sheet or ice cap requires both prolonged cold and precipitation (snow). Hence, despite having temperatures similar to those fo glaciated areas in North America and Europe, East Asia remained unglaciated during the most recent glacial maximum except at higher elevations. This difference was because of the ice sheets in Europe produced extensive anticyclones above them. These anticyclones generated air masses that were so dry on reaching Siberia and Manchuria that precipitation sufficient for the formation of glaciers could never occur (except in Kamchatka where these westerly winds lifted moisture from the Sea of Japan). The relative warmth of the Pacific Ocean due to the shutting down of the Oyashio Current and the presence of large ‘east-west’ mountain ranges were secondary factors preventing continental glaciation in Asia.
Question: Which of the following is not true of glaciation in East Asia during the last glacial maximum, according to the text?
a. East Asia experienced less glaciation than in North American and Europe.
b. The anticyclones above North America and Europe lowered the temperature in those regions, allowing for increased glaciations.
c. The lack of Oyashio Current partially contributed to less glaciation in East Asia.
d. Drier air over East Asia was the primary factor that contributed to less glaciation over the region.
Question 1:- c. Whether a hair follicle produces straight or curly hair is likely determined before birth.
Question 2: a. Through a meta-analysis of studies published between 1973 and 2011, researchers have concluded that sperm count has significantly declined among men living in Western countries.
Question 3:– d. By monitoring dragonfly STMD neurons, researchers have determined that dragonflies are capable of predicting the future location of prey.
Question 4: b. The anticyclones above North America and Europe lowered the temperature in those regions, allowing for increased glaciations.