PTE frequently 2019 repeated summarize written text
Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be a judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.
Brand loyalty exists when consumers repeat-purchase your brand rather than swapping gan switching between brands. It is widely agreed that it is far more expensive to have to find a new customer than to keep existing ones happy. So brand loyalty is crucial for achieving high-profit margins. For charities, it is important to set a marketing objective of improving brand loyalty. If existing donors can be persuaded to set a direct debit to the charity, its cash will improve significantly.
To enhance, or reposition a brand’s image
Although some brands stay fresh for generations (Marmite is over 100 years old) others become jaded due to changes in consumer tastes and lifestyles. At this point, the firms need to refresh the brand image to keep the products relevant to the target market. A clear objective must be set. For instance: what brand attributes do we want to create? What do we want the brand to stand for?
This occurs when a firm aims to change a brand’s image so that the brand appeals to a new target market. Twelve years into its life cycle. McVities’s decided to reposition its Hobnobs biscuit brand, Hobnobs had been positioned as a homely, quite healthy biscuit for middle-aged consumers. The research pointed McVities’s in a new direction: younger, more male, and less dull. So new packaging was designed and then launched in conjunction with a new, brighter advertising campaign. In 2013 Hobnobs sales were worth £36 million, 9 per cent up on the previous year.
Almost 120 years ago, during the first Gilded Age, sociologist Thorstein Veblen coined the term “conspicuous consumption”. He used it to refer to rich people flaunting their wealth through wasteful spending. Why buy a thousand-dollar suit when a hundred-dollar one serves the same function? The answer Veblen said, was power. The rich asserted their dominance by showing how much money they could burn on things they didn’t need. While radical at the time, Veblen’s observation seems obvious now. in the intervening decades, conspicuous consumption has become deeply embedded in the texture of American capitalism. Our new Gilded Age is even more Veblenian than the last.
Today’s captains of industry publicize their social position with private islands and superyachts while the president of the United States covers nearly everything he owns in gold. but the acquisition of insanely expensive commodities isn’t the only way that modern elites project power. More recently, another form of the status display has emerged. In the new Gilded Age, identifying oneself as a member of the ruling class doesn’t just require conspicuous consumption. It requires conspicuous production. If conspicuous consumption involves the worship of luxury, conspicuous production involves the worship of labour. It isn’t about how much you spend. It’s about how hard you work. Nowhere is the cult of conspicuous production more visible than among America’s CEO’s
The 1920’s moviegoers experience was largely dominated by silent movies but saw the -introduction of synchronized sound. In the 1920s movie stars were really stars-with huge salaries, the fashions activities of the Hollywood greats echoed around the world and 100,000 people would gather in cities all over the world, including such diverse cities as London and Moscow, to greet Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks when they toured of Europe. Early silent movies were often accompanied by live piano or organ music and provided enormous entertainment value to audiences captivated by the experience of watching moving pictures on the silver screen.
Although the had been previous attempts to introduce sound, it wasn’t until 1923 that synchronized soundtrack was photographically movie. It would still be seven long years before taking pictures gained total supremacy and finally replaced the silent film era. The first movie theatres were called Nickelodeons, and were very basic compared the luxurious picture palaces that followed but what an aura of excitement, of laughter, fun and tears surrounded them! Before the introduction of movie soundtracks, movies were often accompanied by scripted music from a piano.
As an art, architecture is essentially abstract and nonrepresentational and involves the manipulation of the relationships of spaces, volumes, planes, masses, and voids. Time is also important to factor in architecture since there is no one vantage point from which the whole structure can be understood. The use of light and shadow, as well as surface decoration, can greatly enhance a structure. The analysis of building types provides insight into past cultures and eras.
Behind each of the greater styles lies no a casual trend more a vogue, but a period of serious and urgent experimentation directed toward answering the needs of a specific way of life. Climate, methods of labour, available materials, and economy of means all impose their dictates. Each of the greater styles has been aided by the discovery of new construction methods. Once developed, a method survives tenaciously, giving way only when social changes or new building techniques have reduced it. That evolutionary process is exemplified by the history of modern architecture, which developed from the first uses of structural iron and steel in the mid-19th century.
American English is, without a doubt, the most influential and powerful variety of English in the world today. There are many reasons for this. First, the United States is, at present, the most powerful nation on earth and such power always bring with it influence, indeed, the distinction between a dialect and a language has frequently been made by reference to power. As has been said, ‘a language is a dialect with an army’s.’ Second, America’s political influence is extended through American popular culture, in particular, through the international reach of American films (movies, of course) and music. As Kahane has pointed out, “the internationally dominant position of culture results in forceful expansion of its language….. the expansion of language contributes….. to the prestige of the culture behind it”.
Third, the international prominence of American Englis is closely associated with the extraordinary quick development of communications technology. Microsoft is owned by an American, Bill Gates. This means a computer’s default setting for language is American English, although of course this can be changed to suit one’s own circumstances. In short, the increased influence of American English is caused by political power and the resultant diffusion of American culture and media, technological advance and the rapid development of communications technology.