# PTE writing Summarize written text sample with answer
Read the passage below and summarize it using one sentence. Type your response in the box at the bottom of the screen. You have 10 minutes to finish this task. Your response will be a judge on the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the key points in the passage.
The ways of life of Upper Palaeolithic people are known through the remains of meals scattered around their hearts, together with many tools and weapons and the debris left over from their making. The people were hunter-gatherers who lived exclusively from what they could find in nature without practicing either agriculture or herding. They hunted the bigger herbivores, while berries, leaves, roots, wild fruit, and mushrooms probably played a major role in their diet, Their hunting was indiscriminate, perhaps because so many animals were about that they did not need to spare pregnant females or the young. In the cave of Enlene, for example, many bones of reindeer and bison fetuses were found. Apparently, Upper Palaeolithic people hunted like other predators and killed the weakest prey first. They did, however, sometimes concentrate on salmon runs and migrating herds of reindeer.
to popular beliefs about ‘cavemen’ Upper Palaeolithic people did not live deep inside caves. They rather chose the foot of cliffs, especially when an overhang provided good shelter. On the plains and in the valleys, they used tents made from hides of the animals they killed. At the time. on the great Russian plains, they built huts with huge bones and tusks collected from the skeletons of mammoths.
Men hunted mostly with spears; the bow and arrow were probably not invented until the Magdalenian periods that came at the end of the Upper Palaeolithic. Tools and Weapons, made out of wood or reindeer antlers, often had flint cutting edges. Flink knappers were skillful and traditions in flint knapping were pursued for thousands of years. This continuity means that they must have been carefully taught how to find good flint nodules and how to knap them in order to make knives, burins (chisel-like tools) or scrapers, which could be used for various purposes.
In its periodic quest for culinary identity, Australia automatically looks to its indigenous ingredients, the foods that are native to this country. ‘There can be little doubt that using an indigenous product must qualify a dish as Australian‘, notes Stephanie Alexander. Similarly, and without qualification, Cherikoff states that ‘A uniquely Australian food culture can only be based upon foods indigenous to this country’, although, as Craw remarks, proposing Australian native foods as national symbols rely more upon their association with ‘nature’ and geographic origin than on common usage.
the lack of justification for the premise that national dishes are, of necessity, founded on ingredients native to the country – after all, Italy’s gastronomic identity is tied to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand’s to the non-indigenous tomato, Thailand’s to the non-indigenous chili – the reality is that Australians do not eat indigenous foods in significant quantities. The exceptions are fish, crustaceans, and shellfish from oceans, rivers, and lakes, most of which are unarguably unique to this country. Despite valiant and well-intentioned efforts today at promoting and encouraging the consumption of native resources, bush foods are not harvested or produced in sufficient quantities for them to be a standard component of Australian diets, nor are they generally accessible. Indigenous foods are less relevant to Australian identity today than lamb and passionfruit, both initially imported and now naturalized.
When an individual drives a car, heats a house or uses an aerosol hair spray, greenhouse gases are produced. In economic terms, this creates a classic negative externality. Most of the costs (in this case, those arising from global warming) are borne by individuals other than the one making the decision about how many miles to drive or how much hair spray to use. Because of the driver (or sprayer) enjoys all the benefits of the activity but suffers only a part of the cost, that individual engages in more than the economically efficient amount of the activity.
In this sense, the problem of greenhouse gases parallels the problems that occur when someone smokes a cigarette in an enclosed space or litters the countryside with fast-food wrappers. If we are to get individuals to reduce the production of greenhouse gases to the efficient rate, we must somehow induce them to act as though they bear all the costs of their actions. The two most widely accepted means of doing this are government regulation and taxation, both of which have been proposed to deal with greenhouse gases.
What is text/written language anyway? It’s an ancient IT for storing and retrieving information. We store information by writing it, and we retrieve it by reading it. Six thousand to 10,000 years ago, many of our ancestors’ hunter-gatherer societies settled on the land and began what’s known as the agricultural revolution. That new land settlement led to private property and increased production and trade of goods, generating a huge new influx of information. Unable to keep all this information in their memories, our ancestors created systems of written records that evolved over millennia into today’s written languages.
But this ancient IT is already becoming obsolete. The text has run its historic course and it now rapidly getting replaced in every area of our lives by the ever-increasing array of emerging ITs driven by voice, video, and body movement rather than the written word. In my view, this is a positive step forward in the evolution of human technology, and it carries great potential for a total positive redesign of K-12 education.
1.) Upper Palaeolithic People are hunter-gathers who, by definition, lived exclusively from what they could find in nature without practicing either agriculture or herding, and instead of living deep inside in caves, they live in the tents made from the animals they hunted.
2.) Despite the effort to associate traditional Australian food ingredients with national diets, it is impossible to make such link because those indigenous food are produced and consumed in insufficient quantities, and in fact, imported foods are much more representative of what the nation eats.
3.) Greenhouse gases are produced in our daily activities and could create negative externality, which means that most of the cost behind these actions are shouldered by a vast majority of innocent people, and therefore such behaviors can only be regulated through government regulation and taxation.
4.) Written languages, which can be defined as an ancient method of storing and retrieving information, is quickly replaced by the modern information technologies, which involve more audio, visual or kinetic elements, and the writer considers this as a positive movement.