Seat belt Reading practice exercise Fill the blanks 44

eat belt Reading practice exercise Fill the blanks 44 (1)

Seat belt Reading practice exercise Fill the blanks 44

I, for example, am a cyclist and a motorist. I ………………. my seat belt when I drive and …………. a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am ……………. that these are prudent safety measures. I have ………………… many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets “donors on wheels”. But a book on ‘Risk’ by my colleague John Adams has made me reexamine my convictions.

Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these …………………….. sensible precautions. What he has ………………….. argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is ……………… had on average about five percent more road accident deaths than before the introduction of the law. In the United Kingdom road deaths decreased steadily from about seven thousand a year in 1972 to just over four thousand in 1989. There is no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that was introduced in 1983; there’s actually evidence that the number of cyclists and ……………… killed increased by about ten percent. That twice as many children were killed in road accidents in 1922 as now must not be taken as evidence that there is less risk when children play in the street today. It almost certainly reflects the care taken by parents in keeping children off the streets.

How are these figures, which are both puzzling and shocking to be …………………? The answer seems to lie in our perception of risk and how we modify our behavior. An important concept that has been developed to account for people’s’ handling of risk is the “Thermostat Model”. An individual’s ……………….. to take risks is influenced by their own experience and that of others and this model assumes that the degree to which we take risks varies from one individual to another. The key feature in risk taking is the balancing of perceptions of the risk and the possible rewards, and this balance may be a reflection of an individual’s particular type of personality. In general, the more risks an individual takes the greater will be both the positive and negative rewards.

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I, for example, am a cyclist and a motorist. I fasten my seat belt when I drive and wear a helmet on my bike to reduce the risk of injury. I am convinced that these are prudent safety measures. I have persuaded many friends to wear helmets on the grounds that transplant surgeons call those without helmets “donors on wheels”. But a book on ‘Risk’ by my colleague John Adams has made me reexamine my convictions.

Adams has completely undermined my confidence in these apparently sensible precautions. What he has persuasively argued, particularly in relation to seat belts, is that the evidence that they do what they are supposed to do is very suspect. This is in spite of numerous claims that seat belts save many thousands of lives every year. Between 1970 and 1978 countries in which the wearing of seat belts is compulsory had on average about five percent more road accident deaths than before the introduction of the law. In the United Kingdom road deaths decreased steadily from about seven thousand a year in 1972 to just over four thousand in 1989. There is no evidence in the trend for any effect of the seat belt law that was introduced in 1983; there’s actually evidence that the number of cyclists and pedestrians killed increased by about ten percent. That twice as many children were killed in road accidents in 1922 as now must not be taken as evidence that there is less risk when children play in the street today. It almost certainly reflects the care taken by parents in keeping children off the streets.

How are these figures, which are both puzzling and shocking to be explained? The answer seems to lie in our perception of risk and how we modify our behavior. An important concept that has been developed to account for people’s’ handling of risk is the “Thermostat Model”. An individual’s
propensity to take risks is influenced by their own experience and that of others and this model assumes that the degree to which we take risks varies from one individual to another. The key feature in risk taking is the balancing of perceptions of the risk and the possible rewards, and this balance may be a reflection of an individual’s particular type of personality. In general, the more risks an individual takes the greater will be both the positive and negative rewards.

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