What is Conjunctions, Use of conjunctions

What is Conjunctions, Use of conjunctions

What is Conjunctions, Use of conjunctions

Modals and Appropriate Use of Modals with examples

Study the following sentences:

  1. I went home and took my food.
  2. Give her a pen or a pencil.
  3. He is hard-working but not intelligent.
  4. I could not contact him because he was ill.
  5. Since we have no money, we cannot buy a car.
  6. I talked to him while he was going to his office.
  7. He is so weak that he cannot walk.
  8. I shall come if you promise to keep quiet.

In all these sentences, the italicized words join words or sentences. They are linking words and are, therefore, called conjunctions (or connectors).

Definition:- 

A Conjunction is a part of speech that connects words, or sentences or shows relations between sentences.

Kinds of Conjunctions

Conjunctions can be classified into three types:

  1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions
  2. Subordinative Conjunctions
  3. Correlative Conjunctions

1.) Co-ordinative Conjunctions

Study the following sentences:

1.) a) He has seen this house.

b) He has decided to buy it.

c) He has seen this house and has decided to buy it.

2.) a) Ram went to see the circus show.

b) His brother stayed at home

c) Ram went to see the circus show but his brother stayed at home.

3.) a) He cannot write.

b) He cannot read.

c) He cannot write or read.

4.) a) Go where you like.

b) Do not disturb me.

c) Go where you like, only do not disturb me.

5.) a) The hero was rewarded.

b) The hero was praised.

c) The hero was both praised and rewarded.

In each of the above five sets of sentences, sentences under (a) and (b) are independent of each other. They are joined in sentences under (c) by a conjunction (italicized). Such Conjunctions are called Co-ordinative Conjunctions.

Co-ordinative Conjunctions are those conjunctions that join words, phrases or clauses of equal rank.

Here are some more examples:-

  1. Ram and Sham went to the market.
  2. I did go there but I did not participate in the discussion.
  3. Sonu is a coward but his brother is very brave.
  4. You should ring up your mother, for she must be worried.
  5. He is sick, yet he is always cheerful.
  6. We went to Delhi and saw the zoo.
  7. The Prime Minister, as well as the Home Minister, paid a visit to the flood-hit areas.
  8. He is better, but he does not attend the office.
  9. Everybody opposed him; he, however, stuck to his plan.
  10. You will succeed, for you are hardworking.

2.) Subordinative Conjunctions

Study the following sentences:

1.) a) The thief was caught red-handed.

b) He was stealing a jewelry box.

c) The thief was caught red-handed while he was stealing a jewelry box. (Time)

2.) a) She is extremely happy today.

b) She has been engaged toa boy of her choice.

c) She is extremely happy today because she has been engaged to a boy of her choice. (Reason)

3.) a) He continued gambling.

b) He lost all his money.

c) He continued gambling until he lost all his money. (Time)

4.) a) The students work hard.

b) They want to pass.

c) The students work hard so that they should pass. (Effect)

5.) a) It was quite cold.

b) She did not light a fire.

c) Although it was quite cold, yet she did not light a fire.

In all the above five sets of sentences, sentences under (b) depend upon or are subordinate to the sentences under (a). They have been joined under (c) with the help of some conjunctions (in italics). Such conjunctions are called Subordinative Conjunctions.

Subordinative Conjunctions are those conjunctions that join the Subordinative clause/clauses to the Principal clause. They generally indicate different relations in which the subordinate clause stands to the Principal Clause.

Here are some more examples:

Also read, Determiners, kinds of determiners, use of determiners

  1. He made a promise that he would behave better in the future.
  2. I shall try to help her since you desire it.
  3. He will join the meeting if he is allowed to do so.
  4. You cannot pass unless you work hard.
  5. Let us go home as it is getting dark.
  6. She will be able to win the scholarship because she is working very hard for it.
  7. He is taking exercise regularly in order that he may improve his health.
  8. The sun will shine while the world lasts.
  9. The minister returned to the capital after he had delivered the speech.
  10. The news is true as far as I know it.

Use of ‘If’ as Subordinative Conjunction

A
If You go to Delhi.

You like this color.

Bring a camera for me.

Get three sets right now.

B
If she goes there.

I go to Kashmir.

She will find things totally charged.

I shall bring some apples for you.

C
If You had gone there.

I had been the headmaster.

She had worked hard.

You would have been in trouble.

I would have dismissed this foolish peon.

She would have passed.

3.) Correlative Conjunctions

Study the following sentences:

  1. No sooner did the reach the station than the train steamed off.
  2. Neither Sham nor his brother committed this crime.
  3. He is so weak that he cannot walk.
  4. She is not only beautiful but intelligent also.

Prepositions rules learning, Prepositions practice exercises

In all the above sentences, Conjunctions are seen to occur in pairs such as no sooner…………. than, neither …………. nor, so …………… that. not only …………. but also. Such Conjunctions are called Correlative Conjunctions

Here are some examples to illustrate the use of some Correlative Conjunctions:

a.) Neither……….. Nor:

  • This book is neither useful nor cheap.
  • Ramesh can neither see nor hear.

b.) Either…………. or:

  • Either you or your friend has stolen my book.
  • You can either play or work.

c.) Not only……….. but also:

  • He is not only poor but honest also.
  • The cruel lady not only dismissed her servant but also got him arrested.

d.) Though……….. yet:

  • Though he is rich, yet he is not mean.
  • Though he is quite hard-working yet he could not pass.

e.) Lest……….. Should:

  • Walk carefully, lest you should stumble.
  • She is careful this time, lest she should fail again.

f.) Both……….. and:

  • He is both handsome and sensible.
  • Both Sita and her sister were absent.

g.) Such……….. as:

  • I love such students as are industrious.
  • He is such a fool as no one likes.

h.) As……….. as, so……….as:

  • Exercise is as necessary as food.
  • You do not love her so much as I do.

i.) Scarcely………..before :

  • We had scarcely reached the river before it started raining.
  • The leader had scarcely entered before the audience became restless.

j.) Hardly……….. when:

  • They had hardly reached the school when the bell rang.
  • She had hardly stepped out when she got the sad news.

k.) So……….. that:

  • He worked so hard that he won a scholarship.
  • He is so foolish that you cannot expect any sensible talk from him.

l.) Whether……….. or:

  • It is the same for me whether you take part in games or not.
  • I am going ahead with my plans whether to succeed or fail.

m.) No sooner………..than :

  • No sooner is the sky overcast than the peacock begins to dance.
  • No sooner did the thief see the policeman than he took to his heels.

n.) The same………..that/as:

  • This is the same man that came to my help.
  • It is the same kind of pen as mine.

o.) Rather………..than:

  • I shall rather starve than steal.
  • He would rather die than beg.

Use of Relative Pronouns as Connectors or Conjunctions

Study the following sentences:

1.) a) The farmer is very sad.

b) His crops were damaged.

c) The farmer, whose crops were damaged, is very sad.

2.) a) God helps those people.

b) They help themselves.

c) God helps those people who help themselves.

3.) a) Listen to this

b) Your teacher says something.

c) Listen to what your teacher says.

4.) a) Dr. Manmohan Singh is a very able administrator.

b) He is the Prime Minister of India.

c) Dr. Manmohan Singh, who is the Prime Minister of India, is a very able administrator.

5.) a) This building is very strong even today.

b) It was constructed in 1870.

c) This building, which was constructed in 1870, is very strong even today.

6.) a) The model was sold for rupees six hundred.

b) I prepared this model.

c) The model, that was prepared by me, was sold for rupees six hundred.

In each of these six sets of sentences, sentences under (a) and (b) have been combined into single sentences under (c) with the help of italicized connectors. These connectors are Relative Pronouns.

Thus we see that Relative Pronouns can also act as Conjunctions in some cases.

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